Fully-protected marine reserves: a guide
|Title||Fully-protected marine reserves: a guide|
|Year of Publication||2000|
|Authors||Roberts C-M, Hawkins J-P|
|Publisher||WWF Endangered Seas Campaign|
|City||USA and Environment Department, University of York|
|Keywords||benefit, conservation, economy, establishment, fishery, fishery impact, guidelines, habitat, management, management tool, marine protected area, no-take area, ocean, policy, protected area, protection, recreation, research, review, scale, scuba-diving, size, spillover, tourism|
Fully-protected marine reserves are areas of the sea completely protected from fishing and other extractive or harmful human uses. The aim of this information pack is to summarize the scientific case for fully-protected reserves in a way that is easily understood by everyone. Our objective in producing it is to speed up the process of translating scientific research into action. The pack is particularly aimed towards people who need information to inform and persuade others of the benefits of reserves. They include, for example, those working to set up community-based management of marine resources, park or fishery managers, and policy makers.In addition to explaining the theory behind fully-protected reserves this book is also intended as a practical guide. The main text of the book provides much of the background to reserves. This is supplemented by a series of case studies showing some of the most interesting reserves from around the world.This book has a global focus and we will show how reserves can work in any region from cold water to warm. Reserves are also usually portrayed as only benefitting animals that stay put. We explore ways in which they can work for both migratory and site-attached species. We start by asking why reserves should be protected from fishing and review the evidence to support these claims. Throughout the book we consistently highlight the conservation and economic benefits of reserves. We try to answer commonly-asked practical questions such as how large fully-protected zones should be, where they should be placed and how they can be enforced. We also aim to stimulate further questioning which can help advance everybody's appreciation and understanding of reserves.Key points:- Less than half a percent of the seas lie within marine protected areas, and most of them are under-resourced, poorly managed and offer little protection.- Perhaps only one ten thousandth of the oceans are protected from all forms of fishing.- Fully-protected reserves, areas closed to fishing, extractive or harmful uses, are powerful management tools. There is an urgent need to establish more to reverse species losses and habitat destruction.- Fully-protected reserves represent a precautionary, ecosystem-based approach to management.